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A classification of digital equalizers (draft)

vladg/sound

Okay, this is my first try to make some kind of classification of digital equalizers. It’s mostly based on some defects or features they have in their responses. These defects or features give digital equalizers their unique sound. Sometimes they sound “digital” in bad meaning of this word (i.e. “harsh”) but the other side of digital sound is clean, pristine and maybe too cold sometimes. I don’t have much time to make this classification really glossy so it’s some kind of a draft.

In my opinion there’re 7 main properties of digital equalizers, which affect their sound:

  1. Frequency response behavior near Nyquist frequency
  2. Phase response behavior near Nyquist frequency
  3. Frequency response ringing
  4. Types of Curves
  5. Time domain response
  6. Saturation
  7. Noise

Now I’m going to try to illustrate possible cases for each property by some images mostly created by VST Plugin Analyzer. All pictures were created at 44.1 kHz sample rate…

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Categories: Uncategorized

UNITED DJS FOR ABRUZZO

The great E.P. for “Leave a Track for Abruzzo”

Footloversmusic, Fahrenheit and Heatflow
are proud to present
UNITED DJS FOR ABRUZZO

English

Thanks to the initiative born on Facebook, here’s the top of digital E.P.’s we’re talking about the one signed by “United DJs For Abruzzo”

The idea of raising funds for the displaced people in Abruzzo through the sale of a digital E.P. series, featuring tracks donated by all the DJs that wanted to join the project, was successful.

The compilation “United DJs for Abruzzo”, created by Footloversmusic, collaborating with Heatflow and Fahrenheit Music, has so involved the best DJs around the world.

Italiano

L’idea di raccogliere fondi per i terremotati dell’Abruzzo tramite la messa in vendita di una serie di e.p. digitali, con pezzi donati da tutti i dj che vogliano farne parte, è risultata indovinata.

La compilation “United Djs For Abruzzo”, ideata da Footloversmusic in collaborazione con Heatflow e Fahrenheit Music, ha così coinvolto i maggiori dj in circolazione.

UMEK
VALENTINO KANZYANI
JOY KITIKONTI
MARIO PIU’ & NDKj
MAURO PICOTTO
ALEX YOUNG & SHELLA
STEPHAN KRUS
PRESSLABOYS
THE DOLPHINS
DJ DEXTRO
ROMANO ALFIERI
LEONARDO GONELLI
TOMMY FLY
MARCELLO CONCIALDI & GG DEX
MINICOOLBOYZ
MAURO ALPHA – MARCO SARTO – DALBE
GABRY SANGINETO
VINJAY
ALEX BIZZARO – LORENZO TRE
ALEX PICCIAFUOCHI

Follow the link below to view, listen and buy the compilation:

https://www.beatport.com/it-IT/html/content/release/detail/173068/United%20DJs%20For%20Abruzzo

AUDIO FILES

ENGLISH VERSION THANKS TO GOOGLE TRANSLATE, ORIGINALLY MADE IN ITALIAN (must be optimized)

The times when we had accounts with various tape formats are now completely disappeared.
Today the life of a sound engineer or artist is, is entrusted entirely to the files.
Files in English means archive file and, as you can imagine, sources prior to digital, paper for the most part.
The computers that we use today instead of machinery, dealing only to create, store, manage and process files.

Similarly to the real world, analog, the virtual world, namely the parallel digital universe is subject to its rules that allow him to exist.
To better understand the digital environment should be somewhat ‘more aware of our; few of us, although sapendolo, you realize that a library, the mobile takes our books, can play its role because there is a force in Nature (called Gravity) without which not only books but even the furniture itself, floating in midair, ergo: without the force of gravity, the library does not work.
Still in metaphor we must bear in mind that books are also made of sheets obtained from the trees and they exist thanks to light, the food, rain, air, etc. And so on.
Similarly, the digital universe requires rules pseudo-natural to work.
The biosphere is the operating system and the ecosystem from Digital Audio Workstation …

PCM AUDIO FILE NOT COMPRESSED

Technical parameters:

FREQUENCY OF SAMPLING

The sampling frequency, expressed in Hz, although it may be that in some audio editor operated freely in cuts usually uses standard: 44.1, 48, 88.2, 96 or 192 kHz. The choice of which format to adopt is dictated by the technical characteristics of the sound card and quality requirements, the more high frequency and better quality (frequency response wider and less aliasing effect). The CD using 44.1kHz. Each time the sampling rate doubles, will also doubled the space occupied by the audio file.

RESOLUTION

The resolution is expressed in bits: the standards used are 16 and 24. Generally prefers to work a 24-bit because the resolution increases considerably: from 65,536 step, 16-bit to even 16,777,216, 24 bits. It should be noted that for the same period a 24-bit file will be 50% larger than a 16-bit file.

Chunk

To speak of this additional parameter we need to make a comparison: if our audio files (but applies to all other file types) were a book, this parameter would be represented from that, necessarily, must list the content pages. It ‘clear that more pages will have the index may have more chapters to the book.
Let’s go back to digital: This index is the Chunk. The Chunk is an area of the file (usually the head) that contains information on file, (there are also chunks of text where the parameters are written as the author’s name or the location of the original file on line timecode, etc.).. All audio files take a chunk to 32 digits (bits) which limits the length but a 4GB, usually more than enough, but in special cases this dimension could be limiting and that is the Sonic Foundry has developed the Wave64 format, which uses a chunk of 64 digits (bits), with the clear purpose do the maximum size limit.

LITTLE-BIG ENDIAN E-ENDIAN

Apple’s processors use a system to sort the Byte-called BIG ENDIAN, while IBM-compatible processors, Windows, using a system called little-endian. We enter a po ‘more on technical.
And ‘know that 8 bits are a Byte, a 16-bit file is then formed by Byte 2, the first Byte is said Least Significant Byte (LSB) and the second Most Significant Byte (MSB); processors working following order belong to little-endian system, those who prefer the MSB all’LSB instead belong to big-endian.
In practical terms if I had scanned the figure “16” with the system I ENDIAN LITTLE-this sequence of bits: “00000000-00010000” while with the system I ENDIAN BIG-this other: “00010000-00000000”. If at this point share the files on systems without an appropriate conversion, we would have a severely wrong because the initial value of “16” would be interpreted as “4096”!
If you happen to import an audio file format wrong, you know already a sound level which can be the result. From here all the controversy the incompatibility between Mac and PC.
The AIFF file and follow the order SD2 BIG-ENDIAN, the Wave, including all derivatives, the little-endian.

MAIN FORMATS

AIFF (extension. Aif) this format very popular in the Mac environment, is the proprietary format of Apple, is little used by Windows users. AIFF means Audio Interchange File Format (File Format for the Audio Interchange). Like the Wave if in a Stereo 44.1kHz and 16bit you can write directly in Red Book on CD Audio. Similarly, the BWF can contain text information and positioning.

WAVE: (extension. Wav) this format is the world’s PC as the AIFF format is that Macintosh. They are virtually equivalent if we exclude the fact that one follows the format Little Endian and the other Big Endian. There is in compressed format but for normal audio applications is used only in non-compressed by a loss of quality. The various compression formats depend on the CODEC installed and activated nell’ACM (Audio Compression Manager, managing audio compression) of Windows.

BROADCAST WAVE FILE: (extension. BWF) as can be understood by the name has the same content of an audio file Wave but is expanded by a series of information concerning the positioning timecode original date and time of creation, and the author of the file and so on. As is aimed at job training, differently from all’AIFF Wave and similarly, has not compressed formats.

SONY WAVE 64: (extension. W64), even this format, developed by Sonic Foundry (later acquired by Sony Pictures Digital), is almost similar to the Wave, except that it uses a chunk composed of 64 digits (bits) instead of the usual 32, could well exceed the limit of 4,294,967,296 bytes (4 GB) imposed by a chunk to 32 digits. Since not many DAW support it has no reason to be used only in anticipation of a really long record.

SOUND DESIGNER II: (extension. Sd2) This format, once widespread in Mac, has been gradually disappearing. Like the Wave if in a Stereo 44.1kHz and 16bit you can write directly in Red Book on CD Audio. Similarly, the BWF can contain text information and positioning.

During a digital recording through any Digital Audio Workstation (in most cases a computer with a recording software Audio / MIDI) real-time file on our hard drives in most common formats: AIFF, BWF, and Wave W64 that we already employed in the same category.

Every DAW software has the need to memorize the location of each and every file its amendment, level, pan-pot, fade or cut, automation or even more specific settings of the plugin used and where to andarli find, to name a fraction. These settings are written on a separate file, usually saved in the same folder or the other in a nearby area immediately, the format of which is owner said.

The format owner owes its name to its limited compatibility with other DAW, because each has a proper, and is so exclusive that even versions of the same software tangible older, often are not compatible! It should be recalled that in the owner files are saved all the MIDI events, if it allows the DAW recording.

Although the practice more used to exchange work between incompatible DAW is to export each track in an audio file by itself so long as the duration of the session, and possibly a MIDI file format 1 with the party played by external tools or virtual companies and associations have invested in achieving a specific standard for interchange:

AAF, stands for Advanced Authoring Format, allows you to export the metadata (the information so position. An audio file) on the fade and automation, plus some information on changes made not destructive.

AES31, the symbol AES is obviously that of ‘Audio Engineering Society who has given directives to maintain the metadata during the interchange between different platforms and via network. It is based on sound BWF.

OMF, stands for Open Media Framework (Interchange), was given birth by Digidesign in order to make interchangeable Protools sessions with other professional DAW, also relies on the management of metadata for audio files. It can also export in a format that uses a single file, enormous, which also includes audio files.

Open TL, is an interchange format developed by Tascam for their systems of hard-disk recording then extended to DAW computer.

At present no one has yet clearly prevailed over the other and in some DAW can be found all those formats. We recommend, however, even before the export, to see which ones are present in DAW destination.

– Alex Picciafuochi on behalf of http://www.smap.it

THE VOICE

The voice is the musical instrument that we better know: since the dawn of humanity is with us; sake of survival have taught not only to humans but at least the majority of mammals and cetaceans to recognize and draw conclusions from the “voice” belonging to or less their group, flock or tribe, sex and age, perhaps more precisely the same sight and the equal of smell. This premise is necessary to clarify immediately that the voice, despite its extension is not exceptional, it should be treated with special attention reserved, not least because it is the only instrument capable of giving meaning to the notes played.

The first basic element for a splendid recording of the voice, is obviously a beautiful voice.
Just like any other musical instrument skills natural refined by the study are the first crucial step towards a true professional result.
Unlike other instruments, recording voices, can take place in a small and very dry acoustic, known as Vocal Booth, a reverb will be added just in listening through the headphones to help the interpreter in implementing its part, without it being recorded: it is unwise to record voice with the reverb because it will make too complex to make cuts and editing thereafter. Get ready to affect several times the same tracks, to have more material to choose from.
If the singer is accustomed to undermine one of the two speakers of headphones from one ear to listen direct its vocal sound, find a way to mute the channel correspondent on the headspeaker free, in order to avoid an unpleasant return to the microphone. Make comfortable in temperature and humidity the recording room, this will benefit the naturalness of performance and ask the singer not to move too much and to avoid making noises of any kind, if not in moments of not singing, can return useful to place on the soft carpet area below feet. In order to avoid the unpleasant effects of the phenomenon Comb Filter, free of any reflecting surface near the area of recording.

Although there are good general purposes microphones, is almost always preferable to choose a specific model for voice.
The polar characteristics of a microphone declare its sensitivity within a radius of 360 degrees. A directional microphone is more appropriate stage for its sensibility to the sounds coming from a different angle than the front, and in most situations little noise, on the contrary a capsule microphone omni-directional need almost a perfect or totally dry acoustic of the recording room: this because of the predisposition of omni-directional microphone to capture over the subject of registration also the total return of reverberation environment. Ultimately, the most typical, versatile and best suited, thus appears to be that of microphone polar pattern to cardiode, for the fact that his attention is mainly focused towards coming from the direction in which it pointed but with a rather wide angle, And almost nothing from what comes from the opposite direction, thereby reducing cancellations and resonances return especially from the wall opposite the vocalist.

In cases where it is difficult or too costly to reduce the typical resonances of the room, can come in help the Reflexion Filter of the SE Electronics, that is a curved acoustic shield that positioned behind the microphone, so that the envelope it inside, isolating the spread of the voice towards the environment and its reverbered return. Accessories imperative then is the filter-pop, usually, to a limited extent, already entered in microphones for stage employ, it should be purchased separately if not already included; the purpose of this mechanical filter is mainly to prevent the involuntary breath of some consonants, usually “b” and “p”, go to press on the diaphragm generating sub frequencies with consequent distortions in the same frequencies as voice, may also be useful to impose the necessary distance between the mouth and microphone, usually around 1 foot (approx 20/30 cm).

As a transducer each microphone also has its own timbre that can matching well or not with a voice or musical style, rather than with others. The obvious choice is made by a condenser microphone with large diaphragm: this type of microphone can come to capture very soft details and maintain transparency and sound fidelity absolutely better than other kind of mikes.

Clearly, a great studio, should have a large number of microphones of various kinds, so in order to verify, along with singer, the most suited to your style and timbre. We recommend that you test Neumann U87 and TLM49 and a AKG C414 B-XLII, which are the models chosen by most recording studios. This is obviously excellent microphones with a price not always accessible, in the last years, however, these myths of sound, were joined by models with a cheaper price, surprisingly able to deliver a very good sound, such as Rode NT2-A or Audio Technica AT3060. The choice of microphone, we repeat, it’s still very personal, because it must match your personal voice: indeed there are many artists who prefer even in the studio dynamic microphones, which for their characteristics of strength and “accuracy” are usually relegated to use on stage, like the famous Shure SM58.

The treatment of the voice includes many precise treatments in dynamic and in timbre, including some cuts targeted to eliminate any disturbances, and of course the appropriate quantities of reverb and delay for the musical genre. Going in order of inclusion in the audio chain the first thing to do is to put a high-pass filter, roughly around 200 Hz, the purpose of this intervention is to alleviate the effect proximity and cut away any possible disturbances of low frequency produced by a thousand possible factors, it is essential that the filter is positioned first in the chain of processors / plug-in and before each any other to avoid such as a wrong action on the part of the following, for example: the compressor. The compressor is the one tool that allows you to control the dynamic evolution of a performance, so as to make it more homogenous and maintain the level always intelligible every single step. Set the ratio at around from 4:1 to 8:1 and a compression factor that does not exceed the 8dB sporadically. It remains difficult to give more precise indications as the approach depends on the level at which you are working, if you have any preset available, use it, could be a good starting point for work without heavy up with errors. In queue to compressor can enter the equalizer, which is an unreplaceable instrument to correct or further customize the timbre, incredibly harmful if used improperly: it is important to limit the use of equalizer so as not to threaten to exasperate certain frequencies and make too aggressive sound. At this point we are ready to connect in the send/return bar the effects of reverb and delay as requested from the genre and style of interpretation. As an extra, if needed, we could add a correcting intonation plug-in: the most popular software include the Auto-Tune Evo of Antares and the Melodyne of Celemony.

For situations live microphones must have structurally different characteristics such as heavy duty capabilities, insensitivity towards sounds coming from back and far, handing isolated and provided with a pop-filter, despite the models used are undoubtedly the Shure, as SM 58 and Beta 58 but also SM 57 and Beta 57, the Sennheiser models or AKG found a large fans among the various performers, in any case follow the same rule applies to studio mikes: choose the microphone that sound better with your voice and musical style.

– Alex for Strumenti & Musica magazine –

COMPRESSOR

TRANSLATED FROM ITALIAN WITH GOOGLE TRANSLATE (must be optimized)

That compression is one of the thorniest issues to be addressed, first, because the compressor reacts accordingly signal to be covered and second, because the fashions of the moment influence the ways of understanding and using compression.

The dynamic range is the space, mostly expressed in decibels, which exists between the sound lighter and stronger. The ear is the sensory organ of the body with the most extensive trip, then the largest distance between the threshold of hearing and pain for too much pressure to have a mind to different disturbance impressed with the molecules d ‘air since the fall of a leaf and the roar of thunder crashed nearby. The music does not come to these gradients but the classical symphonic music can go really close.

If we were to record the natural events described above would have to deal with many problems, the first certainly would be the choice of microphone but most certainly would be insurmountable for the choice of reproduction, there is no speaker systems capable of reproducing the range dynamic. Some years ago the low dynamic range of media, primarily tape and vinyl, imposed a heavy reduction in travel dynamics, this is to avoid reaching the threshold of distortion is seeing signs of weaker covered by background noise, sound or number crunch in the first place. The first order of compression was then almost exclusively to prevent the disadvantages resulting from excessive travel dynamic. For our ear limitation of dynamic is less detrimental to the sound of distortion or background noise.

Subsequently, the compressor has also found applications in creative sound design, for example on some musical instruments, the electric guitars and basses definition improves sound and allows the attack to add more to sustain notes while the voice is perfect for keeping the words intelligible if immersed in a musical arrangement. If cleverly applied to each component part of an arrangement, the compression makes it possible to maintain any intelligible phrasing of each instrument, limiting the excessive excursions dynamics that lead to the sound of the individual to continually surface and disappear from the body. As a result the material so treated is also more convenient to manage: the average listener to a music in the background without continuous changes in volume is certainly more convenient for a continuous adjustment of the volume knob.

Compressor there are many models and types, the most popular are the outboard discrete components, tube or solid state that are able to work because the sound without losing its identity. For the treatment of single sound is usually prefer those monobanda, because the note played must be controlled by the compressor along with harmonic and also all other components of the sound, compared to the treatment of complex signals, then mixing, are favorites multiband compressors Because cutting and processing signals in distinct portions depending on the range of frequencies involved, to prevent a talk about the low frequencies include sounds in the middle and high bands. Of course even in the virtual environment is wasted choice and the opportunity to provide an apparatus, particularly vintage, is much easier than the “real world”, especially on expansion cards based on DSP can be found compressors that have little to envy to those in “flesh and bones”, with no secondary benefits, in spite of valvular true, the benefits will not be altered with the wear and, unlike the “physical product”, a plug, once purchased, can be inserted on multiple tracks simultaneously.

The most common parameters that allow adjustment of the compressor are grouped into two categories:
Category meaningful for:
THRESHOLD: (threshold) adjusts the level from which the compressor will start working.
RATIO: (ratio) regulates the amount of compression applied, for example. 4:1, if the value is “infinite 1” will act as a limiter.
And the group that controls the compression function of time, a kind of envelope:
ATTACK: (attack) regulates the time interval from exceeding the threshold (threshold) and the activation of compression.
RELEASE: (issue) determines the time of issue of compression from the time when the input signal falls below the threshold for intervention.

Some recent schools of thought prefer recording an already compressed, justifying this choice with the fact that the compressor working directly connected to the instrument responds in a more natural, others prefer the opposite philosophies, pointing out that this is the only way to prevent possible Shooting errors ending with the compromising recording in addition to the advantage of any opportunity remain open until the final stage of mixing. Other thinkers, perhaps more equilibratamente, adopt a mixed technique, carefully selecting sounds from the first trial than treat later. Obviously their experience and their style should be the primary way forward but sometimes, to confirm their choices or to expand them, it is better to be flexible; exploring different techniques from the usual personal, you can discover new worlds fascinated.
Absolutely to keep in mind is and will remain the fixed point, valid for all signal processors, that even with compression you can destroy or enhance the signal Treaty, whatever its nature, much more often than might seem and a good use of his ear combined with a constant reading of structural level is always preferable, especially in the presence of equipment, treatment that is listening, not excellent.

A compression of the exasperation we are living in these years. The radio stations have triggered the disaster dynamic “of modern disks. Years ago someone, surely a record, noticed that the songs played on the radio ended up stronger with more support from the public. Since then started a race that has not yet been completed, increasing to compress the dynamic range, with the clear aim of increasing to more I can not the average level of song, true responsible for impression of a high volume, transforming the delicate and refined process of mastering a sound kind of press! To make sure the costs naturalness of records. Try to listen to a recording of a po ‘of years ago and you will see the sophistication of today’s productions. E ‘clear, is a fashion and as such is intended to last only for a limited period but, in a few years, when we tired of all this over-compression, we end up with tons of CDs with good records tragically affected.

– Alex on behalf of http://www.smap.it

EQUALIZER

TRANSLATED FROM ITALIAN TO ENGLISH WITH GOOGLE TRANSLATE (must be optimized)

The equalizer, often abbreviated as EQ, owes its name probably need to make the same volume of the audible frequency band to which the first devices were addressed. Many years ago people preferred to change the electronic ticketing to obtain a flat frequency response at the expense, as we saw then, many other parameters perhaps more important. Surely, for fans of Hi-Fi the years, 60, among the main reasons why we bought there was an equalizer to compensate for shortages and surpluses of certain speakers and home with a curve control exactly opposite to that normally obtained. Result: the speakers had a short life, the rotations of the signal being compacted sound and everything sounded even more false. It was so fashionable that many of integrated amplifiers and preamps had already on a panel. When we do not know a great deal of distortion and various stages and seemed the most reasonable solution to be adopted. Man hand that humanity has evolved defects that certainly outstripped the merits led to the decline and the myriad of equipment brands unscrupulous gave the coup de grace to this passion so noble as maniacal … L ‘ professional use the equalizer instead saw various uses, the limitation of bandwidth for broadcasting to correct audience, similar to the field Hi-Fi but following more specific criteria, to correct a liking of sounds and musical instruments.

Time passes and things find their natural balance. That is the nature and so is the technology. Today, the equalizer is used to the sound designing and corrections otherwise not solvability, to correct the balance in a mixing and mastering stage as a creative effect.

The equalizer is composed of filters that share a slice of frequency in an exclusive, once separated the band sound, are able to manage the sound level with the consequent rebalancing of the total harmonic spectrum. The equalizers are divided into two main families: Charts and parameters, the frequencies have early intervention filters fixed, other furniture, of course, to the delight of a larger supply on the market were both paragraphs that semiparametrici, reductions clear derivation from the two main families.
The filters can work in various ways, Band-pass which is commonly used as fixed by graphic equalizers, in a frequency adjustable in those paragraphs, in form and frequency bandwidth than adjustable parametric and channels of those central semi-parametric, low pass, which is a filter that excludes all frequencies above the cut-High Jump which is a filter that excludes all frequencies below that of cutting and shelving filters that are generally apply on the sides of the frequency range and commonly found on many of the appliances with an adjustment of tones but also on equipment Hi-Fi on TV or even at both ends of an equalizer.

Because of the high slope filters needed to cut into slices the actual sound, the portion subject to intervention suffer a slight delay compared to the others. creating obscure rotations phase, which should be recalled are among the more responsible for the loss of definition and compactness of the signal. That is why, working evil, that is too heavy with speeches, and economic apparatus too, at the end of the correction, the sound ends up being worse than the original.
In reality, however, some equalizers have this flaw in their greatest honor, see-channel mixer strip and high-level, to say nothing of equalizers high-definition as: Sontec, Prism, Massenburg, Millennia, Manley and Avalon, to name some, and vintage ITT and GML.
There are, however, only in digital version, equalizers, as some models of Weiss, a consistency phase, that is where the gangs who suffer fewer treatments are delayed the time to quit being with the other but, although technically it is the most correct, the result is not always appreciated, not for specific failures but only for their lack of personality, lacking some ‘taste the equalizer to which we are accustomed, are therefore highly recommended but better if accompanied by a model analgico.
Last category to mention is that of dynamic equalizers, for example, a few digital model of Weiss, is actually another way to call the multiband compressors, because their basic intervention makes them fall into this category. Their use could produce interesting results, the signal processing in different ways depending on the noise level.
Obviously the virtual world has to say and his choice is truly endless with excellent models, suonanti well and truly complete and that by its nature the virtual world has to offer the gift also excellent emulations of vintage equalizers known any other way as some equalizers in the form of DSP UAD-1, Pultec the Bomb Factory in RTAS and TDM and Waves, Native or TDM, the series Renaissance, etc.. Interesting, always the Waves, the gold series, the entire coherence of a phase completed by a dynamic equalizer.

– Alex Picciafuochi on behalf of http://www.smap.it

LOUDSPEAKER

ORIGINAL VERSION IN ITALIAN ENGLISH VERSION THANKS TO GOOGLE TRANSLATE (must be optimized)

The speaker is the component that deals to convert electrical energy into sound energy, then it belongs to the family of transducers. The transducers are always the weak link in the chain audio, because of the difficulty of their task: to transform a form of energy into another. Given the breadth of the range of frequencies that are required to play, the speakers are born with a propensity for one area of the full range audio and take this specific name: “Tweeter” the speaker dedicated to high frequencies, “Mid -Range “the frequency and medium-sized” Woofer “that of the low, and these are further divisions in the extreme range,” SuperTweeter “the speaker that handles the high frequencies and” Subwoofer “what is however only low. There are of various kinds that are distinguished by the principle of operation.

Electrodynamic system or Magnetodinamico
Speakers electrodynamic or magnetodinamici are the most common type on the market; equipped fact the vast majority of speakers sound.
Their operating principle is like for many transducers pretty simple: a voice coil is surrounded by a permanent magnet, the passage of electricity, alternately as the one that conveys information audio music, the filament coil it makes it attracted to a towards that direction or the opposite, a head is bonded to the membrane the speaker (usually a cone or a dome) shakes produced by the movement of vibrating membrane connects the surrounding air generating sound waves; happening here is that the transduction . Speakers Magneto / electro-dynamic transducers are great, robust and reliable, but because of the mass in motion (coil + membrane) have a considerable inertia, not so fast transducers. The search for materials particularly rigid but light has largely reduced the reaction time and damping in response to transients and their sound was particularly hot, more talented designers to achieve many of the speakers or monitor loudspeakers high – end more loved.

Electrostatic system
Electrostatic speakers work with a film (usually inert) dipped between two grids to get electricity alternating audio signal. The film is polarized by a transformer (these transducers require a power supply network) and, as happens to the voice coil in transducers described above, the difference in charge of the two grids, which are the polar opposite, attracts or rejects the film put Moving forward, so can the air molecules surrounding the vibration generating sound waves. The mass movement in this case is very small and hence the inertia. The answer to the transient is excellent and very rapid, which results in terms of listening in greater detail and sound in a higher definition. Unfortunately, as well as having an important also have the disadvantage of a low propensity for low frequencies and fragility due to the possible lacerabilità film if overloaded addition to the low efficiency level (low yield watt-decibel) are not very suitable for professional requiring a lot of pressure, especially on low frequencies. They may however be a good choice even if used in professional classical music, especially the most sensitive issue such as that chamber. Some designers have solved the bulk of the structural limitations of this type of transducer system combining an electrostatic transducer magnetodinamico specifically for low frequencies.

Belt System
Transducers tape:
like other tweeter transducers also has a belt membranes immersed in a magnetic field that reacts to changes polarity, transducers have always been very appreciated especially in the hi-fi, but their sensitivity has always prohibited to a widespread use in ‘Professional audio.
Times and technologies have evolved and thanks to researchers world-famous as the Doctor. Oskar Heil, the inventor of the transducer to tape new concept (Heil Air-Motion Transducer) the ribbon tweeter has finally become a robust and reliable.
And thanks to a pieghettatura accordion tape (a metal diaphragm) is able to lower the ratio to 1:4 of Loading, allowing the mobile part of being in front of a load of less than one quarter that of the other transducers, with the undeniable advantage of greater speed and agility of movement, which translates to listen in greater detail cleaning of transparency and sound. Remains a suitable treatment transducer frequency medium, high and very high but not at low frequencies.

– Alex Picciafuochi on behalf of http://www.smap.it